Special types of aircraft developed for marine uses. Seaplanes may be divided into two principal classes: floatplanes and flying boats. The amphibian is a type which can alight on or take off from either land or water, and so may act as a landplane or a seaplane. This chapter is by Captain Norman Macmillan.
Engineless flying in gliders and sailplanes. There is a school of thought which frowns on the art of gliding and soaring flight or even goes so far as to treat it almost with derision, but it is, after all, linked historically with the beginnings of our subject, and since it provides a sport which attracts exponents throughout the world. Whatever may be one’s view of its utility value, it is none the less interesting to study, as was shown in a recent Royal Aeronautical Society lecture by our contributor, G M Buxton. Many now well-known personalities were active on gliders in the more or less pioneering days and much valuable work was done by them. As shown in the chapter on the history of flying in Part 1, the early glider experiments were the first steps to controlled heavier-than-air flight, and the coming of the internal combustion engine changed this dream into reality.
Modern Soaring Flight
THE WINGS OF A SAILPLANE are covered partly with plywood, generally about 1½ millimetres thick, and partly with fabric. The wing has a main spar at the leading edge and a light spar or spars near the trailing edge. The main spar has to carry the bending moment caused by the forces on the wing.
Modern Soaring Flight: Photogravure Supplement
GLIDER BEING LAUNCHED by rubber rope. The rope falls off the hook when it has become loose, and the flier then glides down until his craft comes to rest on the skid, above which he is sitting.
Modern Soaring Flight:
SOARING ABOVE THE LONGMYND, a hill near Church Stretton, Shropshire, is a sailplane named The Professor, from the Midland Gliding Club.
The quest for efficiency with lightness and reliability. The evolution of the aero engine is a fascinating story of progress and mechanical achievement and it rightly takes its place in this Part. Your Editor’s own first experience was with the 50-hp rotary Gnome, in which the cylinders revolved round the crankshaft, wasting a good deal of oil in the process! But it was the Gnome which did so much to make flying possible, even though (or so it appeared) it sometimes delighted to cease to function at the most inconvenient of moments. Forced landings, however, were slow landings in those days and complete disasters were rare from that cause. This chapter is by L H Thomas.
How pilot and navigator encircled the earth from New York to New York. One of the most outstanding flights of recent years was that of the Winnie Mae, a small monoplane in which the late Wiley Post and Harold Gatty flew round the world in eight days sixteen hours. This chapter is by L H Thomas, and is concluded in part 3. It is the first article in the series Great Flights.
Preliminary instruction on the ground and in the air. “Learning to Fly” is a branch of our subject of which this is the first chapter, submitted by Arthur Clark. Several more chapters will appear in due course so that the reader may have a complete and up-to-date account of flying tuition and what it means today.
The large numbers of clubs and schools make it a comparatively easy and inexpensive matter to learn the preliminaries of flying, quite apart from the wider opportunities offered by the Royal Air Force, and there is an ever-growing number of pupils reported from all such organizations. Of the making of pilots, we may now say, there is no end.
The standard of flying instruction is high and the facilities numerous. Your Editor looks back with some amusement to the time when, perched upon the side of a Henry Farman type biplane, I had my first lessons by leaning over an instructor’s shoulder and holding the joystick. Later, he had to lean over my shoulder, and trust to my immature footwork with the rudder-bar. But it all seemed very normal then and nobody, least of all the instructor, worried much about it.
The method worked and was better than teaching oneself to fly, which was not so easy. One of my instructors (there were two, the Pashley Brothers, whose services we had) is still teaching at the same aerodrome, Shoreham-by-Sea, Sussex, for what is now the South Coast Flying Club and with a total of more than 10,000 flying hours to his credit.
His career has been singular in that most of it has been devoted to instructional work, for which he has an enthusiasm amounting almost to a passion. Most pilots vary their activities, but C. L. Pashley likes nothing better than teaching the tyro. His brother Eric Pashley was killed in France in the war of 1914-1918. It is a far cry from those distant days of primitive instruction to the present up-to-date schools which exist in such great numbers.
The Miles Magister
THE MILES MAGISTER is a low-wing cantilever monoplane often used for instructional purposes. The pupil who is learning to fly sits in the back cockpit, his instructor in the front. There are dual controls and complete sets of standard instruments in both cockpits, with a special hood so that instruction in blind flying can be given. The Magister has a maximum speed of 145 miles an hour at 1,000 feet and a stalling speed of 45 miles an hour. The service ceiling is 18,000 feet. The engine is a De Havilland Gipsy Major of 130 horse-power.